How smart glass works

What is PDLC Technology?

PDLC is an active smart glass technology meaning it needs electricity to turn on and off. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (PDLC) Film consists of micron-sized droplets of liquid crystal dispersed in an optically isotropic polymer matrix. By choosing appropriate combinations of liquid crystal and polymer material, the PDLC film can be electrically switched from a light-scattering or opaque “off state” to a non-scattering or transparent “on state”. In the “off state”, the PDLC film appears milky white due to the refractive index mismatch encountered by incoming light at the liquid crystal/polymer interface.


Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) technology is a mixture of indium oxide and tin oxide. Being semi-conductive, it has a high electrical conductivity. Moreover, thin layers of about 200 nm are transparent in the area of visible light while infrared light is reflected. Indium tin oxide has a density of approximately 7 g/cm³ and is a white to yellowish color. Indium tin oxide is an important transparent, electrically conductive material.

At the flick of a switch, SmartPro Ultra Clear Smart film becomes transparent from a dormant, milky-white translucent state. When electricity is applied, the liquid crystal molecules line up, the incident light passes through, and the smart film becomes transparent. On the other hand, when the power is off, the liquid crystal molecules are randomly oriented so that light is scattered, resulting in an opaque smart film.